Gas Chromatography

Chromatography is a method employed to divide chemical substances that depends on different partitioning actions between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for detaching elements in a mix.

The sample is transported by a stream of moving gas through a tube that holds evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most significant techniques in chemistry because of its ease, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most frequently used to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to decide on certain thermochemical constants.

Gas chromatography is also widely utilized in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, as an example, gas streams that are frequently analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to cancel out undesirable differences.

There are a number of routine analyses that are conducted quickly in environmental and related fields. For instance, there are several countries with certain monitor points that are used as a means of continuously calculating emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. In addition, gas chromatography can be utilized in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography begins with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, typically a gas that works as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples that are in the liquid state are first vaporized prior to being injected into the stream of carrier gases. Next, the gas stream moves through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are determined by the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those pieces that have a more significant interaction with the stationary phase are slowed more and thus divide from those with a less prominent interaction. As these components begin to be eliminated out of the column with a solvent, they can be numbered by a detector and/or kept for additional analysis.

There are two prevalent types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is dependent on the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes takes place as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is typically utilized when detaching ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it crosses paths with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that are different based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These variations give the mixture components the ability to divide from each other when they use these difference to alter their moving times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When choosing a carrier gas, the selection depends on the nature of the detector being utilized and the elements that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be highly pure and chemically inert towards the sample. To ensure that there is no additional water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prominent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples have the ability to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is at the start injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then moved to the column. When packed columns are used, the first section of the column is usually used as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small partvof the vaporized sample is moved to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is called split-injection. This method is employed when hoping to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A method known as on-column injection can be utilized for capillary gas chromatography when trace amounts could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe directly into the column. Later, the solvent can evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is generated by a process referred to as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and separated from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

Lastly, there is also a technique called loop-injection, and it is commonly used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow consistently through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. After that, the sample is transported from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes containing a concentration step.

Whether you’re searching for specialty gases to be employed in gas chromatography, or any other industry that uses specialty gases, PurityPlus has a wide variety of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to provide assistance in any areas you may need. For additional information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at 01-800-400-CRIO .